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Health Savings Account Frequently Asked Questions
The basics of HSAs
- What is a Health Savings Account ("HSA")?
A Health Savings Account is a special purpose account used in conjunction with a High Deductible Health Plan. HSAs offer you a different way to pay for health care. They enable you to pay for current health expenses and save for future qualified medical expenses, including retiree health expenses, on a tax-free basis.
You must be covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) to be able to take advantage of HSAs. An HDHP generally costs less than what traditional health care coverage costs, so the money that you save on insurance can therefore be put into the Health Savings Account.
You own and you control the money in your HSA. Decisions on how to spend the money are made by you without relying on a third party or a health insurer. You will also decide what types of investments to make with the money in the account in order to make it grow.
- What Is a "High Deductible Health Plan" (HDHP)?
You must have an HDHP if you want to open an HSA. An HDHP is a health insurance plan that generally doesn't pay for the first several thousand dollars of health care expenses (i.e., your "deductible") but will generally cover you after that. Of course, your HSA is available to help you pay for the expenses your plan does not cover.
For 2015, in order to qualify to open an HSA, your HDHP minimum deductible must be at least $1,300 (self-only coverage) or $2,600 (family coverage). The annual out-of-pocket (including deductibles and co-pays) for 2015 cannot exceed $6,450 (self-only coverage) or $12,900 (family coverage).
For 2016, the HDHP minimum deductibles are the same as 2015, however, the annual out-of-pocket amount is different. For 2016, it cannot exceed $6,550 for self only coverage or $13,100 for family coverage.
HDHPs can have first dollar coverage (no deductible) for preventive care and apply higher out-of-pocket limits (and co pays & coinsurance) for non-network services.
Who can have an HSA?
- Who is eligible for a Health Savings Account?
To be eligible for a Health Savings Account, an individual must be covered by an HSA-qualified High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) and must not be covered by other health insurance that is not an HDHP. Certain types of insurance are not considered "health insurance" (see below) and will not jeopardize your eligibility for an HSA. You must not be covered by Medicare and must not be a dependent on someone else’s tax return.
- Can I get an HSA even if I have other insurance that pays medical bills?
You are only allowed to have auto, dental, vision, disability and long-term care insurance at the same time as an HDHP. You may also have coverage for a specific disease or illness as long as it pays a specific dollar amount when the policy is triggered. Wellness programs offered by your employer are also permitted if they do not pay significant medical benefits.
- Does the HDHP policy have to be in my name to open an HSA?
No, the policy does not have to be in your name. As long as you have coverage under the HDHP policy, you can be eligible for an HSA (assuming you meet the other eligibility requirements for contributing to an HSA). You can still be eligible for an HSA even if the policy is in your spouse's name.
- I'm on Medicare, can I have an HSA?
You are not eligible for an HSA after you have enrolled in Medicare. If you had an HSA before you enrolled in Medicare, you can keep it. However, you cannot continue to make contributions to an HSA after you enroll in Medicare.
- My employer offers an FSA, can I have both an FSA and an HSA?
You can have both types of accounts, but only under certain circumstances. General Flexible Spending Arrangements (FSAs) will probably make you ineligible for an HSA. If your employer offers a "limited purpose" (limited to dental, vision or preventive care) or "post-deductible" (pay for medical expenses after the plan deductible is met) FSA, then you can still be eligible for an HSA.
- My employer offers an HRA, can I have both an HRA and an HSA?
You can have both types of accounts, but only under certain circumstances. General Health Reimbursement Arrangements (HRAs) will probably make you ineligible for an HSA. If your employer offers a "limited purpose" (limited to dental, vision or preventive care) or "post-deductible" (pay for medical expenses after the plan deductible is met) HRA, then you can still be eligible for an HSA. If your employer contributes to an HRA that can only be used when you retire, you can still be eligible for an HSA.
- My spouse has an FSA or HRA through their employer, can I have HSA?
You cannot have an HSA if your spouse's FSA or HRA can pay for any of your medical expenses before your HDHP deductible is met.
- Can I start an HSA for my child?
No, you cannot establish separate accounts for your dependent children, including children who can legally be claimed as a dependent on your tax return.
- I'm a single parent with HDHP coverage but have a child/relative that can be claimed as a dependent for tax purposes, and this dependent also has non-HDHP coverage. Am I still eligible for an HSA?
Yes, you are still eligible for an HSA. Your dependent's non-HDHP coverage does not affect your eligibility, even if they are covered by your HDHP.
Contributing to an HSA
- How much can I contribute to my HSA each year?
As long as your High Deductible Health Plan was opened on or before December 1, you and your employer are eligible to make contributions up to, but not exceeding, the maximum of $3,350 for individual coverage, or $6,650 for family coverage. These numbers are valid for 2015. For 2016, the numbers are $3,350 and $6,750, respectively. If you are age 55 or older, you can also make additional "catch-up" contributions (see below).
- I have a very high deductible, is there a limit on how much I can contribute?
The most you can put into your account for 2015 is $3,350 if you have single coverage and $6,650 for a family. These amounts may be increased for inflation in future years.
- Do my HSA contributions have to be made in equal amounts each month?
No, you can contribute in a lump sum or in any amounts or frequency you wish. However, your account trustee/custodian (bank, credit union, insurer, etc.) can impose minimum deposit and balance requirements.
- Can my employer contribute to my HSA?
Contributions to HSAs can be made by you, your employer, or both. All contributions are aggregated to determine whether you have contributed the maximum allowed. If your employer contributes some of the money, you can make up the difference.
- Do my contributions provide any tax benefits?
Your personal contributions offer you an "above-the-line" deduction. An "above-the-line" deduction allows you to reduce your taxable income by the amount you contribute to your HSA. You do not have to itemize your deductions to benefit. Contributions can also be made to your HSA by others (e.g., relatives). However, you receive the benefit of the tax deduction.
- Can I make contributions through my employer on a "pre-tax" basis?
If your employer offers a "salary reduction" plan (also known as a "Section 125 plan" or "cafeteria plan"), you (the employee) can make contributions to your HSA on a pre-tax basis (i.e., before income taxes and FICA taxes). If you can do so, you cannot also take the "above-the-line" deduction on your personal income taxes.
- Can I claim both the "above-the-line" deduction for an HSA and the itemized deduction for medical expenses?
You may be able to claim the medical expense deduction even if you contribute to an HSA. However, you cannot include any contribution to the HSA or any distribution from the HSA, including distributions taken for non-medical expenses, in the calculation for claiming the itemized deduction for medical expenses.
- I'm over 55 and would like to make catch-up contributions to my HSA, like I've done with my IRA. Is that possible?
Yes, individuals 55 and older who are covered by an HDHP can make additional catch-up contributions each year until they enroll in Medicare. The additional HSA "catch-up" contributions allowed are $1,000 annually.
- I turned 55 this year. Can I make the full "catch-up" contribution?
If you had HDHP coverage for the full year, you can make the full catch-up contribution regardless of when your 55th birthday falls during the year. If you did not have HDHP coverage for the full year, you must pro-rate your "catch-up" contribution for the number of full months you were "eligible", i.e., had HDHP coverage.
- If both spouses are 55 and older, can both spouses make "catch-up" contributions?
Yes, if both spouses are eligible individuals and both spouses have established an HSA in their name. If only one spouse has an HSA in their name, only that spouse can make a "catch-up" contribution.
- Does tax filing status (joint vs. separate) affect my contribution?
Tax filing status does not affect your contribution.
- May a self-employed person contribute to an HSA on a pre-tax basis?
No. Self-employed persons may not contribute to an HSA on a pre-tax basis and may not take the amount of their HSA contribution as a deduction for SECA purposes. However, they may contribute to an HSA with after-tax dollars and take the above-the-line deduction.
Using your HSA
- How do I know what is included as "qualified medical expenses"?
Unfortunately, we cannot provide a definitive list of "qualified medical expenses". A partial list is provided in IRS Pub 502 (available at www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p502.pdf). A determination of whether an expense is for "medical care" is based on all the relevant facts and circumstances. To be an expense for medical care, the expense has to be primarily for the prevention or alleviation of a physical or mental defect or illness.
- What happens if I don't use the money in the HSA for medical expenses?
If the money is used for other than qualified medical expenses, the expenditure will be taxed and, for individuals who are not disabled or over age 65, subject to a 20% tax penalty.
- Can I use the money in my HSA to pay for medical care for a family member?
Yes, you may withdraw funds to pay for the qualified medical expenses of yourself, your spouse or a dependent without tax penalty. This is one of the great advantages of HSAs.
- Can I pay my health insurance premiums with an HSA?
You can only use your HSA to pay health insurance premiums if you are collecting Federal or State unemployment benefits, or you have COBRA continuation coverage through a former employer.
- Can I purchase long-term care insurance with money from my HSA?
Yes, if you have tax-qualified long-term care insurance. However, the amount considered a qualified medical expense depends on your age. See IRS Publication 502 for the amounts deductible by age.
- I have an HSA but no longer have HDHP coverage. Can I still use the money that is already in the HSA for medical expenses tax-free?
Once funds are deposited into the HSA, the account can be used to pay for qualified medical expenses tax-free, even if you no longer have HDHP coverage. The funds in your account roll over automatically each year and remain indefinitely until used. There is no time limit on using the funds.
- What happens to the money in my HSA if I lose my HDHP coverage?
Funds deposited into your HSA remain in your account and automatically roll over from one year to the next. You may continue to use the HSA funds for qualified medical expenses. You are no longer eligible to contribute to an HSA for months that you are not an eligible individual because you are not covered by an HDHP. Contribution maximums depend on when you either lost or newly gained HDHP coverage. Please check IRS Publication 969 for more information.
- Do unused funds in a Health Savings Account roll over year after year?
Yes, the unused balance in a Health Savings Account automatically rolls over year after year. You won't lose your money if you don't spend it within the year.
- What happens to the money in a Health Savings Account after I turn age 65?
You can continue to use your account tax-free for out-of-pocket health expenses. When you enroll in Medicare, you can use your account to pay Medicare premiums, deductibles, copays, and coinsurance under any part of Medicare. If you have retiree health benefits through your former employer, you can also use your account to pay for your share of retiree medical insurance premiums. The one expense you cannot use your account for is to purchase a Medicare supplemental insurance or "Medigap" policy. Once you turn age 65, you can also use your account to pay for things other than medical expenses. If used for other expenses, the amount withdrawn will be taxable as income but will not be subject to any other penalties. Individuals under age 65 who use their accounts for non-medical expenses must pay income tax and a 20% penalty on the amount withdrawn.
- Who will be the "bookkeeper" for my HSA?
It is your responsibility to keep track of your deposits and expenditures and keep all of your receipts.
- How do I use my HSA to pay my physician when I'm at the physician's office?
If you are still covered by your HDHP and have not met your policy deductible, you will be responsible for 100% of the amount agreed to be paid by your insurance policy to the physician. Your physician may ask you to pay for the services provided before you leave the office. If your HSA custodian has provided you with a checkbook or debit card, you can pay your physician directly from the account. If the custodian does not offer these features, you can pay the physician with your own money and reimburse yourself for the expense from the account after your visit.
- As an employer, do I own my employees' HSAs? Can I control how they spend the money in them?
No, you do not own your employees' HSAs. The employee fully owns the contributions to the account as soon as they are deposited, just as with a personal checking or savings account to which you would deposit their compensation.
- As an employer, do I have to contribute the same amount to every employee's HSA?
Employer contributions must be "comparable", that is they must be in the same dollar amount or same percentage of the employee's deductible for all employees in the same "class". You can vary the level of contributions for "full-time" vs. "part-time" employees, and employees with "self-only" coverage vs. "family coverage". You do not need to consider employees who do not have HDHP coverage as they are not eligible for HSA contributions.
- Our company offers benefits through a Section 125 plan, do contributions have to be comparable under these plans as well?
Section 125 plans (also known as "salary reduction" or "cafeteria" plans) must meet a different set of rules. Under these plans, contributions (both from employer and/or employee) must meet "non-discrimination" rules. These rules require the employer to ensure that contributions do not favor higher compensated employees.
- How are contributions treated for owners and shareholders of S corps?
Owners and officers with greater than 2% share of a Subchapter S corporation cannot make pre-tax contributions to their HSAs through the company by salary reduction. In addition, any contributions made to their HSAs by the corporation are taxable as income. However, they can make their own personal contributions to their HSAs and take the "above-the-line" deduction on their personal income taxes.
- How are contributions treated for partners in a partnership or limited liability company (LLC)?
Partners in a partnership or LLC cannot make pre-tax contributions to their HSAs through the partnership by salary reduction. However, they can make their own personal contributions to their HSAs and take the "above-the-line" deduction on their personal income taxes.